Velvet Chicken

I’ve never been a fan of chicken breast. Yes yes it’s leaner than dark meat but it’s also usually dry and tough. Until I tried it in Golden House, my favorite Chinese restaurant in San Jose. At first I was disappointed that my order of chicken with snow peas and chestnut came with VERY WHITE bite-sized pieces of chicken breast and wanted to kick myself for not checking before ordering but it turned out that my negligence introduced me to the world of ‘velveting meat”.

I couldn’t stop exclaiming at how tender the meat was and how the lack of any browning of the meat was perfect because of the delicate sauce.

Me: I don’t want to know what freaky thing they did to the chicken to make it so good.

Chris: Freaky thing? I think it’s velveting.

Me: Yeah velvet is a kind of fabric. You just made it up.

Chris: It’s a cooking technique, I read about it in the Chinese Stir-fry book I bought for you.

That shut me up since I didn’t want to admit that I’ve never read that recipe book. Indeed, it turned out that according to Stir-frying to the Sky’s Edge by Grace Young,

“The Chinese revere foods prepared with the silky, smooth texture known by the Cantonese as waat. No other cooking technique produces such light, delicate, tender succulence, hence the culinary term “velveting” in English. This style of stir-fying, popular with chefs, is most typically accomplished by briefly marinating bite sized pieces of beef, pork, chicken, fish scrimp or scallops in a standard combination of egg white, cornstarch, and a little water or rice wine. The marinated morsels are then blanched in oil or water and thoroughly drained in a colander before being stir-fried.”

Hmm, that doesn’t sound difficult at all so I decided to try the Velvet Chicken with Asparagus recipe in the book. The introduction to the recipe says,

“This is one of the most refined stir-fries. The flavors are deliberately mild and subtle so that the textures of the main ingredients can be better appreciated: the chicken breast is silky smooth, with extraordinary succulence, and the asparagus is crisp-tender.”

Ok, how can I NOT try that? This sounds eerily similar to the chicken I was raving about in Golden House.

Trial 1: Method

I followed instructions faithfully, sliced 1 lb of chicken breast into 1/4 inch thick bite-sized slices and marinated them in 2 tbsp of egg white, 1 tbsp of cornstarch, 2 tsp of rice wine and 3/4 tsp of salt for 30 minutes in the refrigerator. 1 tbsp of cooking oil was added to 1 quart of boiling water, boiling water reduced to a simmer before the chicken was gently poached. The recipe says to “cook for 1 minute, until the chicken is opaque but not cooked through”. For my 1/4 inch thick slices, the surface of the chicken slices was still pretty transparent after 1 minute and took 2 minutes before they turned opaque.

Chicken poaching for velveting

After the chicken and asparagus were cooked separately, they were combined with the aromatics and a delicate sauce of chicken broth and rice wine was swirled into the dish at the end.

Trial 1: Results

Not very impressive. The asparagus was indeed crisp tender, the sauce was delicate but the most important part of the dish, the texture of the chicken was pretty far from what I had in Golden House. The exterior of the chicken was softer than chicken breast stir-fried without any velveting but the interior was pretty dry and with 1/4 inch thick pieces that meant that the majority of the chicken was dry. It pretty much reminded me of regular chicken breast dishes I have had in other Chinese restaurant which led me to suspect that velveting is actually commonly practiced in Chinese restaurants but not all restaurants do it well. In any case the technique is obviously not as easy as I thought.

Trial 2: Method

After studying several recipes online which utilized the water velveting technique, I found the velveting marinate to be essentially the same, either 2 tbsp or 1 egg white and 1 tbsp of corn starch to 1 lb of chicken breast, with a little rice wine or water to thin the mixture and 1 tbsp of oil to coat the chicken. However, none of the recipes agreed on the thickness of the chicken pieces, one called for 3/4 to 1 inch cubes, while some others just left it as bite-sized slices. The timings for the poaching were also often not precisely described. How was I supposed to know when the chicken is “90% cooked”? Therefore I gathered that to match Golden House’s soft and succulent chicken, I need to slice my chicken as thin (about 1/8 inch) and then tweak the poaching timing.

About as thin as I could get it to be

About as thin as I could get it to be

I decided to try 3 poaching timings, 1 minute, 45 seconds and 30 secondss but the chicken was clearly uncooked after 30 seconds of poaching so I ended up with just the 1 minute and 45 secs batches.

Poached chicken for velveting technique

Since we just had the Velvet Chicken with Asparagus not too long ago, I decided to use these Chicken in Cantonese style Mango Chicken, also from the Stir-frying to the Sky’s Edge cookbook.

Cantonese style Mango Chicken

Trial 2: Results

Disappointingly, neither timings resulted in chicken as silky and tender as the one I had in Golden House though the batch poached for 45 seconds was indeed superior than the 60 seconds poaching which resulted in overcooked chicken breast. So I’ve determined that the thickness of the chicken slices and the poaching timings both play a part in the end result but I still don’t think that my velveted chicken is as good as the one I’m trying to match :(. It might be possible that the restaurant utilizes the oil poaching method but according to Stir-frying to the Sky’s Edge the water poaching method results in softer pieces of meat. For my next trial (I dont have a strategy yet), I will taste test my chicken alongside Golden House’s so that I can be sure that I’m not trying to match an unattainable texture from my memory.

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Crispy Tofu with Minced Chicken

To cut the long story short, this is THE RECIPE but if you are in the mood, here is the story.

On a particularly lazy afternoon, I found a pack of silken tofu in the fridge and just couldn’t remember which recipe I bought it for. I usually consult a few of a favorite cook books on Saturday morning, pick out 3-4 recipes and do grocery shopping with a shopping list compiled from the menu for the week. This strategy does cut down on the amount of food which goes to waste, except occasions like this when I just can’t remember what the item was intended for…

It’s not me, I blame it on the lingering pregnancy brain. Oh well the tofu still needed to be cooked but every recipe in my trusty cookbooks required at least another ingredient I didn’t have and I didn’t feel like going for a grocery run with Miss Clarey just for 1 ingredient. (My life is full of BIG problems isn’t it?). Anyway thanks to my laziness, I came up with this recipe, with some inspiration from Harumi Kurihara’s Tofu with a Spicy Minced Meat Sauce Recipe.

Ingredients

  • 1 block soft/silken tofu
  • About 3 tbsp corn starch for dusting
  • 3 oz ground chicken breast
  • 1¼ cup dashi stock (or 1 tsp dashi instant powder with 1¼ cup water)
  • 2 tbsp soy sauce (preferably koikuchi)
  • 1 tbsp sugar
  • 1 tbsp sake
  • 2 tbsp mirin
  • 2 cloves garkic
  • ½ oz fresh ginger, peeled
  • 1 tbsp corn starch mixed with 1 tbsp water
  • 2 scallions, finely sliced – for ganishing
  • 1 tsp white sesame seeds (roasted) – for ganishing
  • 1 red cayene or fresno pepper, finely sliced – for ganishing
  • peanut oil or other oil with high smoke point for deep frying
  • 1 tbsp sesame oil
  • 1 tbsp canola oil or other vegetable oil

Not all silken tofu are created equal. Some are so soft I can never get them out of their package in one piece, let alone dusting them in corn starch and deep frying them. After some failures with silken tofu, my preferred brand is Azumaya.

Method

I actually had homemade dashi made from kombu and freshly shaved katsuobushi because cH made extra dashi that weekend. Yipee, I love homemade dashi but am too lazy to make it myself. So I combined the precious dashi, soy sauce sugar sake and mirin in a bowl , finely chop the garlic and ginger AND even managed to drain and wrap the tofu in paper towels before Clarey woke up.

The cayenne is from my garden!

The cayenne was from my garden!

After she was fed and happy, I heated the canola oil over medium-high in a saute pan and fried the garlic and ginger for about 1 minute, followed by the ground chicken. While the chicken was browning, I drizzled in the sesame oil, working the oil into the lean ground chicken. I would probably skip the sesame oil if I had ground chicken thigh meat, but I didn’t…

When the chicken was browned, the dashi mixture goes into the pan and as left to simmer over low heat for 15 minutes.

A previous attempt to deep fry a whole block of silken tofu for another recipe didn’t work so well, so this time I cut the block of tofu into 4, dusted each piece in cornstarch and deep fried each block in peanut oil heated to 375 °F separately.

phew, at least they still looked decent

phew, at least they still looked decent

Into the pan goes the cornstarch mixture to thicken things up. After about 30 seconds of stirring, the sauce thicken enough to coat the back of the spoon so I took the pan off the heat and poured the chicken mixture over the tofu and sprinkled with the scallion, cayenne and sesame seeds.

cropped-img_20130911_204628.jpg

Rice please!

FINAL RECIPE (or just the recipe in this case, since I was happy with my first attempt)

  • 1 block soft/silken tofu, drained and wrapped in paper towels for at least 10 minutes
  • About 3 tbsp corn starch for dusting
  • 3 oz ground chicken breast
  • 1¼ cup dashi stock (or 1 tsp dashi instant powder with 1¼ cup water)
  • 2 tbsp soy sauce (preferably koikuchi)
  • 1 tbsp sugar
  • 1 tbsp sake
  • 2 tbsp mirin
  • 2 cloves garlic
  • ½ oz fresh ginger, peeled
  • 1 tbsp corn starch mixed with 1 tbsp water
  • 2 scallions, finely sliced – for ganishing
  • 1 tsp white sesame seeds (roasted) – for ganishing
  • 1 red cayene or fresno pepper, finely sliced – for ganishing
  • peanut oil or other oil with high smoke point for deep frying
  • 1 tbsp sesame oil
  • 1 tbsp canola oil or other vegetable oil
  1. Drain the silken tofu and wrap in at least 3 layers of paper towels.
  2. Finely chop the ginger and garlic.
  3. In a small bowl, mix the dashi, soy sauce, mirin, sake and sugar.
  4. Heat the 1 tbsp canola/vegetable oil in a saute pan over medium high heat, brown the garlic and ginger for 1 minute.
  5. Brown the ground chicken while folding in the sesame oil.
  6. Add in the dashi mixture and allow to simmer over low heat for 15 minutes.
  7. Meanwhile, heat about 1 inch of oil to 375 °F in a small sauce pan. Cut the drained tofu into 4 pieces and coat each piece in cornstarch just right before lowering into the oil . Fry each piece separately till lightly browned, about 2 minutes. Allow to drain on a plate lined with paper towels.
  8. Add the cornstarch to the dashi-chicken mixture and stir for about 30 seconds till the sauce is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon.
  9. Pour the sauce over the tofu (remove the paper towels first!) and garnish with the sliced scallions, chilies and sesame seeds.